Like Kerosene in His Veins

Throughout the short story “Barn Burning”, the protagonist, Sarty, is faced with what seems to be an impossible conflict; how deep does blood really run? Saddled with an abusive father, he is constantly put into a position where he questions if staying true to his roots is the right decision. Rather early on in the story, after Abner strikes Sarty, he states, “You got to learn to stick to your own blood or you ain’t going to have no blood to stick to”. This exchange emphasizes the importance Abner hold regarding relation by blood. It also encompasses their father/son relationship quite accurately.

Due to the fact that this moral has been instilled in him for so long, Sarty feels a sense of responsibility towards his father. Even when mistreated, he chose to be compliant no matter how intensely his subconscious attempted to persuade him otherwise. A good example of this can be found on page 117 of the packet-155 of the story, where it states, “I could keep on, he thought. I could run on and on and never look back, never need to see his face again. Only I can’t. I can’t,“. The powerlessness he faces is common place even in modern society. For a story written so long ago, it amazes me that many of the themes still occur within our generations. What does this say about how we have progressed, or regressed, as a society?

Can a Mask Reveal a Person’s True Identity? A Deeper Analysis of The Multi-dimensional Narrative “The Secret Woman”

The underlying theme of this narrative is deception. As the reader progresses through the story, they are keenly aware that both the husband and the wife are deceiving one another in different ways. The husband in the narrative describes his own actions as a “school boy lie” (Colette 327). He disguises himself in costume to remain anonymous at the opera. I think the reader too often jumps to the guilty actions of Irene, and fails to observe the distrusting behavior of her husband. As he judges her seemingly split personalities, he fails to reflect on his own shortcomings as a husband. These shortcomings are exemplified by his perception and description of his wife. On page 327, he depicts his wife’s face as “pink, matt and long, like a delicate sugared almond.” In this moment, he is clearly objectifying Irene. In his mind, she is the beautiful entity that can be fully controlled and understood. As soon as she wavers from his personal image of her, she becomes “like the conger-eels”. It’s interesting to assume that as Irene adds to her elaborate costume, more of her true identity is revealed. Her goal in this story is to achieve “the monstrous pleasure of being alone, free, honest in her crude, native state.” (Colette 331). In essence, she wants to be herself. In order to achieve this blissful state, she approaches the battle field of constricting gender norms by wearing her own suit of armor. Her lace mask and purple hood give her confidence that allows her to strive for her own sexual desires. I think what conflicts her husband the most, is that she only desires to “collect some other passer-by, forget him, and simply enjoy”(Colette 331). He wants to view this dramatic adulterous event, but is instead left dumbfounded by her uncommitted affairs. He is left unsatisfied and confused by the complexity of his wife’s character.

How Not to Treat an Angel.

Image result for angel stained glass

When reading A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings the biggest thing that struck me as odd was not the existence of the “angel,” but instead the reaction of the of villagers to the “angel.” I am not a member of any church, but I’ve picked up on some aspects of religion from popular culture and visits to my conservative hyper-religious family. One thing I’ve noticed is that it is encouraged to fear the Lord and his wrath.

The villagers in the story seem to have no concept of fear when it comes to dealing with the “angel.” Surely there is some unwritten rule in religion that frowns upon capturing and keeping an angel in livestock-like conditions. Also, isn’t there a a commandment that tells people to love their neighbor. I know angels aren’t our neighbors, but I would think that followers of religion would put angels on an even higher pedestal of respect. In disrespecting the angel, the villagers didn’t seem to have any fear of the wrath of the lord. This makes me question how devout the villagers truly were.

~Simone Paul

If It Helps, Count Backward: “Black Box” and Trauma

To me, “Black Box” is not a story about strong women. It is not about gender roles, or sexism. Indeed, it has nothing to do with feminism whatsoever. “Black Box” is about sexual trauma, and the many ways in which it destroys lives.

In the saltwater, our main character is cleansed, but she still doesn’t feel at home in her body. Her body is not hers; it is property of the government, and it exists to fulfill their mission. She floats above herself, conceptualizes herself as a series of tools used to complete a goal.

This dissociation is common among victims of abuse, especially sexual abuse. It’s a coping method. She feels as though she is separate from her body, as though her body is not her own, separating herself from the physical form touched and changed by people in power.

This story is told in sections, presented in black boxes. It separates you from the action, like she is separated from herself. The language itself is very matter-of-fact; it’s emotional without actually expressing much emotion.

And maybe all of this is just my point of view because I know what it’s like to feel like your body is separate from yourself. I know what it’s like to feel as though you are merely piloting your body like a great machine.

What do you think? What is “Black Box” really about?

Tlic Reproduction makes no Sence

In Bloodchild, the Tlic are stated to need to have humans as birthing vessels for their eggs like Thread waisted wasps, however, if you know a bit about biology then you will know that this makes no sense at all. First things first let’s get the biggest one out of the way, we have more genetic similarity with Bacteria growing on the Marianas trench then we do with any type of alien. You see we and the Bacteria both have DNA and are from earth. The Tlic on the other hand are aliens and originated far from earth. It is incredibly unlikely that out of the 1.3 MILLION recorded species that only homo Erectus actually works with the Tlic. but, okay, suspension of disbelief. If it really is only humans that can work, why raise them with human parents? Imagine this, the Tlic take the humans as a baby and raise them with other babies and tell them that they are the larval forms of the Tlic and need eggs implanted in them to grow up. Or, maybe raise the humans to worship the Tlic as Gods and the eggs are some bizzare communion wafer, better yet just clone humans as brain dead flesh vessels. I’m starting to get the feeling that Butler just wanted to write a story about a pregnant man. 

Alison Pope: Damsel in Distress?

“Victory Lap” was one of my favorite short stories we read this unit, and part of why I liked it so much was its unique voice–particularly during the first section, which is told from Alison’s point of view. However, as I continued reading, I became confused. The part of the story that had drawn me in, Alison’s unique voice and perspective, seemed to have little bearing on the larger story overall. As the story went on, it become focused on Kyle–his heroism, his taking action to claim his own power and subjectivity, his breaking free from the control of his parents in order to do what he saw as right and save the day. Alison, fascinating, quirky Alison, whose inner life Saunders had devoted several pages to at the outset of the story, seemed suddenly reduced to the cliche of a “damsel in distress”–a young woman who finds herself in a dangerous situation and cannot get out of it by herself, needing instead to be saved by a man. Why would Saunders write such an interesting character and spend so much time developing her fully, only to suddenly shove her to the margins of the story for the sake of the character development of the male protagonist? I could tell from Sanders’ unique and intriguing writing style that he is a thoughtful, talented writer. Too thoughtful and talented to fall back on a tired, sexist trope. This made me wonder–why did he make the choices he did with Alison’s character? Why did he develop her so fully, then push her to the side so abruptly? Was it possible that Alison’s character was meant to be a satire of sorts, to play with and challenge the concept of the “damsel in distress”?

The first few pages, written from Alison’s perspective, provide a wealth of tongue-in-cheek humor, compelling evidence that Saunders meant to be satirical with her. First, Alison is stereotypically “girly” to the point of being comical. She prances around her house via ballet steps, speaking to herself in French and daydreaming about meeting her Prince Charming. She also daydreams about talking to a baby deer in the woods whose mother has been shot by a hunter:

Are you afraid? she asked it. Are you hungry? Do you want me to hold you?

Okay, the baby deer said. 

Here came the hunter now, dragging the deer’s mother by the antlers. Her guts were completely splayed. Jeez, that was nice! She covered the baby’s eyes, and was like, Don’t you have anything better to do, dank hunter, than kill this baby’s mom? You seem like a nice enough guy. (5-6)

The scene in which Alison daydreams about talking to the deer with the dead mother invokes classic Disney films such as Bambi and Snow White, as well as the common trope of the maiden able to communicate with and protect woodland creatures. However, the phrase “Her guts were completely splayed” brings fresh humor to the otherwise familiar scene by injecting it with crude realism and making it read more like a parody of one of those Disney stories than the original. In fact, Alison’s entire character reminds me of a parody of a Disney princess. For instance, another way in which Saunders satirizes a familiar female character trope is through Alison’s unrelenting optimism. In her ethics class, she confidently spouts views on life that could be easily plucked from a children’s television program, even as her jaded teacher clearly thinks they are ridiculous:

In their straw poll she have voted for people being good and life being fun, with Mrs. Dees giving her a pitying glance as she stated her views: To do good, you just have to decide to do good. You have to be brave. You have to stand up for what’s right. At that last, Mrs. Dees had made this kind of groan. (10)

Positivity and pure-heartedness are staples of a female heroine of the “Disney princess” variety, and Saunders shows how Alison lives with these ideals in a real world full of real people such as Mrs. Dees who couldn’t agree with them less. The result is quite humorous.  

However, the first section of the story also provides small, yet powerful details that humanize Alison and show that she is not merely a caricature. Saunders hints at the fact that Alison sometimes has to deal with issues much more serious than fit with her rosy worldview. For example, she describes a borderline dangerous encounter with a local boy, Matt Drey: 

Kissing him last night at the pep rally had been like kissing an underpass. Scary! Kissing Matt was like suddenly this cow in a sweater is bearing down on you, who will not take no for an answer, and his huge cow head is being flooded by chemicals that are drowning out what little powers of reason Matt actually did have.

What she liked was being in charge of her. Her body, her mind, Her thoughts, her career, her future. (7)

In this quote, it is clear that Alison was in a situation with Matt Drey in which he coerced her into doing something she did not want to do and she was scared. Saunders states outright that it is important to Alison that she has agency. This quote makes it obvious that just because Alison is extremely girly, cheerful, and a touch naive, it does not mean that she is okay with being treated by boys or men however they want to treat her. She is still her own person who does not deserve to be violated. What is interesting to me about the line, “What she liked was being in charge of her. Her body, her mind, Her thoughts, her career, her future,” is that not only does it stand in a paragraph of its own, but it seems incredibly different in tone from the rest of Alison’s section of the story. This line seems a lot more straightforward and serious than the rest of the story. It doesn’t use any of Alison’s quirky slang, and it mentions very mature, adult things like “career” and “future” that Alison has not mentioned before. This shift in tone made this sentence stand out to me a lot. I believe Saunders included it to make it clear that no matter how girly, cheerful, naive, absentminded, or ridiculous a person, particularly a woman, is, it does not mean that she does not deserve subjectivity and to be in control of herself. 

After focusing in on Kyle’s actions for several pages, Saunders returns to Alison at the end of the story. At the end, Alison prevents Kyle from killing the near-rapist by shouting at him to stop. She fulfills the traditional feminine role of preventing violence and showing mercy even to the scum of the earth. Her parents praise her for this, her father telling her that she “Did beautiful” (27). To me, her father’s word choice seems particularly meaningful. Beautiful is a word often used to describe women, especially those who are follow traditional gender norms. It almost seems as though Alison is being praised for being the “right” kind of girl, one who embraces gentleness rather than vengeance. However, being this “right” kind of girl has not given Alison peace of mind. She is still haunted by her traumatic experience, having nightmares about Kyle actually going through with the murder. Saunders makes it clear that just because Alison is the “perfect girl”, princess-like in her innocence and happiness, she is still fully human and still suffers psychological consequences after undergoing something traumatic, just as anyone else would.

Altogether, I believe Saunders subverts the “damsel in distress” trope in two ways: by making fun of it and its associated traits (communicating with woodland creatures, relentless cheerfulness), and by humanizing his “damsel” by showing her feeling both the innate human desire for subjectivity and the realistic effects of trauma.

Mutual Recognition in a Relationship with Domination

While reading all of these stories, many of them have interesting power dynamics. The Tlic with the Terran in Bloodchild, the designated mate with the beauty spy in Blackbox, the daughter and the mother from Good County People, the old man and the town’s people from the Very Old Man with Enormous Wings and many more. All of those stories contain a relationship between two parties where one is more so dominating the other.

With every story, I was trying to find mutual recognition between them. In Spiderhead was there mutual recognition between the man in charge and the narrator when the narrator had to first say “acknowledge” before anything was done to him? Was there mutual recognition between the narrator’s friend and Ms. Moore in The Lesson when the main character’s friend accepted the lesson? I’m still not sure. I believe that when a more powerful figure allows their less powerful counterpart a “choice,” it is not mutual recognition. I believe is more so them still lording their power over the other. Like saying “I will give a choice to make you feel like you have power,” but that way, they’re still in power but now only manipulating emotions.

If mutual recognition means that one party sees the other as an equal, I feel like majority of these stories lack that. But if mutual recognition simply means that one party sees the other as an individual with valid feelings and thoughts but still decides to lord power over the other, then the stories do have that. I’m not sure if mutual recognition is up to interpretation, but I believe that if something were to *mutually* recognize another thing, then it would have to see it as an equal being.

“Bloodchild” Vs. Society

Indeed, “Bloodchild” is not about slavery. It is about how the Tlic and Terrans formed an interdependent relationship in which they try to leave peacefully among each other.  As the Tlic offer protection, the Terrans offer one male from each family to serve as a host to Tlic eggs. 

The Tlic are viewed as evil because they are non-human creatures. They are parasitic that need host animals for their eggs. The Tlic reproduce by laying their fertile eggs in other living organisms where the larvae feed off of the host’s blood. When the larvae hatch, they release a poison into the host’s body where they start eating their egg cases while continuing to consume the host. 

A major part of this short story is the influence of culture and society’s expectations. Modern society understands slavery as a treacherous experience, sympathizing to the recurrence of oppression. Butler discusses the approaches by which humans simultaneously protect their survival while also maintaining their survival. The Terrans arrived at a desperate time, so the Tlic used that opportunity to use them as host organisms. There is a symbiotic codependency between the Tlic and the Terrans. The Tlic teach Terrans about the process of reproduction. From birth, Terrans are taught and adjusted to the societal order. In the story, Gan and T’Gatoi develop a relationship that is both loving and manipulative. 

Lastly, Butler creates an unusual binary switch in which the men become pregnant. Our modern day society has a fixed view on gender binary. Usually, males have the majority of the power and females are left with little to nothing. Butler criticizes the traditional power dynamic of the gender binary by establishing a world where the power dynamic between men and women are reversed.

Sonny’s Suffering

Throughout the story, I noticed a very prominent theme of suffering and loss. I was especially captivated by the narrator, his views on Sonny, and lack of his name ever being introduced. His character was very mysterious, yet very understandable.

The narrator is someone who has suffered from a great amount of pain throughout his life. The narrators father died when he was young, his mother died when he was a young adult, he has been through the horrors of war, and lost his baby girl to polio. On top of all of this, he has also had to watch his brother’s life suffer and fall apart.

The pain the narrator felt throughout his life was portrayed in the story through the tone. Since the story is told from the narrators perspective, we are really clued in to the pain he feels about his brother and how his life has turned out.

There are many time in the story where our emotions are evoked through sympathy. The narrator describes Sonny’s addiction, losing his daughter, and the sadness connected to the loss of his parents in a very painful and devastating way. This greatly increases the sympathy we feel as the audience and allows us to connect this emotion to the story.

Baldwin expresses, “These boys, now, were living as we’d been living then, they were growing up with a rush and their heads bumped abruptly against the low ceiling of their actual possibilities.” This quote beautifully illustrates the pain and suffering. We can even hear it in the tone.

Toxic Masculinity and Patriarchy in Barn Burning (W. Faulkner)

a barn (burning)

As we were discussing “Barn Burning” and pointing out certain paragraphs and parts, I found myself rereading in class and thinking about points I had not previously thought of. This semester, I’m taking a class called Women in History; we’re currently discussing how the traditional values held of masculinity and femininity are harming to the development of girls and boys. Throughout “Barn Burning”, the reader is exposed to multiple instances of toxic masculinity and what we call, the cycle of fear and control. In Faulkner’s short story, the different aspects of masculinity are more prevalent than femininity, perhaps because the story is male-centered and male-identified.

Particularly, in several scenes where Sarty is conflicted between his morals and what his father describes as “blood” and “being a man” (110), his second-guessing is taken advantage of by Abner. Because Abner is desperately hungry for power, something he can not obtain in the social world because of his socioeconomic status, he takes what he can get and overpowers Sarty’s mind. That being said, because Sarty admires Abner as the dominant male figure in his life, he allows the overtaking to happen, until of course, the end of the story. Abner fears other men having power over him, and when he can’t control that, he looks for other ways to have power, that being his own family. This weaves into part of the reason why Abner has such a large disrespect to men of higher status than him; he views higher status men as a threat and, thus, does his best to show that their power and status in social situations, does not affect him and his manhood.

The idea of toxic masculinity is particularly strong when Sarty’s father tells him to “be a man” (110) and describes the idea that family ties are stronger than anything else. The fear of not living up to societal expectations of manhood and masculinity are one of the most terrifying things for Sarty which is why he often finds himself conflicted with his true feelings and how Abner views him. At least at the beginning of the story, to respect himself, he needs to gain the respect of his father, therefore not snitching on his father when he’s asked to testify and giving him the answer his father is expecting when asked if he was going to snitch in the first place.

The oppression of women in “Barn Burning” is not as obvious as the toxic masculinity woven throughout the story. However, it is still very much there. Readers must be aware of the timing when Faulkner wrote this story and what was considered the normal way to treat women back then. Women are seen as background characters and many don’t even get a name (until his mother at the very end). The very male-centeredness of the story ignores women and perpetuates the subject/object dichotomy ideal. Abner’s treatment of women further digs into this idea that women are objects for the use of men gaining power over other men. Abner uses women to show power to his employers and that he has control over his family. This is most likely the reason why he views family and blood to such a high standard.

That being said, “Barn Burning” has had my mind churning since we discussed it in class. The many layers that this story contains takes a lot more than just un-peeling this single layer. Overall, I thought that the story was a lot more than what it seemed on the surface. It displayed this racist, southern view, that we’re not exposed to almost ever, unless in history textbooks and lessons. However, that’s a whole other world to dive into later.

The Disappointment Brought Upon By “The Elephant Vanishes”

“The Elephant Vanishes” is a short story written by Haraki Murakami. Personally, I really enjoyed reading this story, however it left me feeling extremely unsettled. One of the key factors to this story that drew me in is the fact that I wanted to know what happened to this mysterious elephant. As soon as the narrator started talking about the news article where the elephant went missing with no trace as to how it disappeared, I was entranced. While I continued to read, I was on the edge of my seat anticipating the big reveal of what truly happened, with a sudden twist in the story that none of us were expecting. But, that never came. In many of the previous stories we had read, there was a science fiction twist to them, always creating a sense of unknown and an unlimited amount of possible explanations. So, with this in the back of my mind, I was waiting for some unexpected explanation to occur.

While I understand that leaving the readers with such a cliffhanger was very intentional, and even may add to the story in so many ways, I was very bothered with it. As someone who does not like the unknown, and is constantly trying to figure out more information, this was a very unsettling ending for me. Not only were we left not really having any information about the author besides his interest in the elephant, but we also have absolutely no understanding of what truly happened to the elephant. What started off as a curiosity about this strange, mysterious creature, quickly turned into anger about how we will not ever realize how the elephant escaped. Was the elephant even real? Physically how did any of this make any sense? And I suppose we will never know.