African Orientalism

Though I was born in the US, my parents made sure I was proud of where we were from.

We crossed the North Atlantic Ocean once in a Blue Moon to visit Néné, the matriarch of our family, and my hundreds of aunts and cousins in Conakry, Guinea. The first time we visited, I remember the surprise of my expectations for Guinea conflicting with my preconceived notions about the place immediately upon exiting the airport.

The stark contrast of what my expectation of west Africa was compared to the reality of the country made me question when are how my misconceptions had first formed. My image of my country had been supplemented by stories from my father, images around our house, and most influentially Guinean and French media portrayals.

How Africa has been defined has always been a product of its interactions with foreigners. Even as Pan-Africans, we who have close roots to the continent still identify more with our individual clans like, Susu, Malinké, or Bantu, than with the identity of “African”, as this is how Africans themselves differentiated each other far before European cartography dividend the continent into arbitrary countries based on colonial rule at the Berlin Conference. Even the etymology of the word “Africa” can be traced to the Amazigh and Greco-Roman languages.

All this is to say that it is important not to forget the way the European/Western gaze still determines how those who’ve never perceive Africa.

Modern Day Non-Orientalism

Orientalism refers to the Western imitation or depiction of certain characteristics and aspects of Middle Easten and Asian cultures. The publication of Edward Said’s book “Orientalism” brought widespread awareness to the term; which he recognizes as the West’s prejudiced interpretation of the East. In, “Lunana: A Yak in the Classroom” the main character, Ugyen travels to a small village called Lunana. However in the movie, the people that live in the village like the class leader Pem Zam, actually live in Lunana. There were no certain stereotypes or different depictions of the outside world or specifically Lunana.

Ugyen found such comfort with the people and the village itself that there was no need for him to linger and hold on tight to his past self (i.e. his iPod). He truly ended up caring for everyone in Lunana and it shows when he moves to Australia and sings the yak herder song perfectly. The creators of this movie were able to steer away from the stereotypes and I wish more movies did the same.

Orientalism in Indiana Jones

Indiana Jones is an iconic movie series with the premise of a professor with a duty to find and preserve ancient relics found all over the world. Most of the relics are found around the middle east, and some are in India as well. This is not about the relics, however, rather its about the surrounding environment and how the locals of the countries that Jones visits are portrayed. There is in fact a high contrast within the movies; from the “civilized” western universities to the “Exotic” middle eastern palaces, which is also the case for the people that Jones encounters.

In the movies, there are two things that stand out about the locals that Jones meets.: Their stereotyped personality and the poor choice of cuisine that the directors choose to represent them. In “Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom”, almost every single non-British person that Jones encounters always seems to be senseless in their actions, whether it be a crippling addiction towards acquiring wealth/power, or extremely predatory behavior towards Jones’ lover. It seems that the producers almost had this as the main instructions for the actors, because it became noticeable how repetitive this behavior was. As for the food, you can see people eating some of the most gut-wrenching and unappetizing things to ever lay your eyes on. The dinner scene in the same movie featured many snakes and insects, as well as monkey brains, which the server claimed as “traditional Indian cuisine”. These things were done mainly in order to dehumanize the unfamiliar so that Jones would seem like more of a liberator of the relics he acquires.

A Note on Orientalism in Lunana

Edward Said describes Orientalism as a built-in system or method by which, the West not only socially constructed and actually produced the Orient, but controlled and managed it through a a series of power relations, working through the tropes, images, and representations of literature, art, visual. In other words it is the imperialist and colonialist outlook on the east by the west.

It can be argued that “Lunana: A Yak in the Classroom” is trying to be vocal on the idea of orientalism. Unlike most movies of this nature, the teacher or “savior” or person with power would be of different nationality or one group (typically the have not’s/ not white or western) is portrayed as evil. However, in this movie both the children/villagers and Ugyen, the protagonist, are both Bhutanese. What differentiates Ugyen from the children and villagers is that fact that he is more “modernized.” This idea of “advanced” society and tradition society is also seen through what Australia means to Ugyen. Although Ugyen goes to Australia at the end of the movie, the fact that he sings the yak herders song shows that the movie is going against this western idea of the east (that maybe all easterners want to be like them but just can’t). Also, the cast of the film is basically all “amateur” actors, with actual Lunana villagers and other Bhutanese people. This goes against the idea of Orientalism because the film takes the actual perspective and thoughts of the people the film is about to portray an accurate representation of that group.


 


 

Orientalism In WW88

When connecting Orientalism to real life the first thing I think of is Hollywood movies. More specifically superhero movies. The first movie that comes to mind is how the theory of Orientalism connects to Wonder Woman 1984. Edward W. Said is someone who is known for diving deep into Orientalism.  He argues that Orientalism is “a style of thought based upon an ontological and epistemological distinction between ‘the Orient’ and ‘the Occident’. In this way, Orientalism tends to rely on binary opposition and stereotypes between the West and the East that most of the time is misleading and destructive. WW84 shows perfectly how little has really changed when it comes to Hollywood’s treatment of other countries and other cultures. Specifically those of the Middle East and North Africa. WW84 indulges a view of Middle East and North Africa, that bears little resemblance to its myriad and unique identities, in the 1980s or now. A clear example of this is in Wonder Woman 1984 is how the movie tells the story of Wonder Woman fighting against a supervillain. But what was disappointing was a sequence in which the villain meets with an overthrown Egyptian King who wishes to return to power and kick the “heathens” out of his land. The villain helps him, but the guy already sold his oil to the Saudis. Then the villain raises a wall, cutting off the poorest people of Egypt from their water sources. After that scene, we are shown Arab children playing in the road as military vehicles race towards them; their nearby parents do nothing, requiring Wonder Woman to save them. And in one brief moment, an Iraqi official asks the villain for help because the Soviets were backing Iran. This is filled and I mean filled with historical inaccuracies. And some insensitive depictions of Middle Eastern people. This showed a lazy, sort of Orientalism by Hollywood. The film’s creators needed a foreign locale to show off the villain’s powers. They wanted people the hero could save. And they wanted a foreign conflict for the villain to get involved in. So they turned to the Middle East. This is the disappointed truth of Hollywood but a sad one as it never seems to get better. 

Orientalism Through the Lens of Lunana

There are a number of instances in Lunana that exhibit orientalism, both directly and indirectly. One major example is the teacher, Ugyen, bringing more modern, new teachings and materials to the classrooms of the remote village. Not only does he bring his phone and headphones, but he has new notebooks, pencils, and other teaching materials shipped. The children of this town have never seen any of there thing before, and this sort of embodies the relationship between the educated city man and the uneducated people from the village. In addition, Orientalism can be seen in the scene where Ugyen is teaching the children the ABCs. He says “C is for Car,” and the children tell him they do not know what a car is, as they have never seen one. This demonstrates an orientalist lens that the movie has, because it portrays the village as unaccustomed to modern practices like driving a car. This makes Ugyen almost a colonist who goes into an uneducated, remote area and has to teach the “natives” common practices.

Although Orientalism is present in this movie, I would argue that it is not an overarching theme, but a mild undertone in the film. Ugyen also learns from the people of the village, and about their practices, which seem foreign to him at first, but he eventually becomes accustomed to. These include collecting yak dung, singing the songs to nature, and even using an outhouse. In traditional orientalism, the colonist teaches the “natives” or the uneducated. In this film however, both parties teach each other, resulting in enlightenment for both the “colonist”(Ugyen) and the “natives” (villagers). I greatly enjoyed this film, and the message that it gave on orientalism, that everyone has something new to learn, and it’s important to keep an open mind in life.

Orientalism in 1910’s Fashion

The Edwardian dress in the late 1890’s-1914 refers to the style of clothing in that time period and the beginning of World War I. This time period was also called the Gilded Era and women’s fashion had a new opulence and elegance. The most notable change in fashion during this time period was the shift in corsets from a Victorian hourglass to an s-shaped corset.

One specific designer at the time period, Paul Poiret, was said to be the creator of modern fashion shapes and designs. His clothing designs were specifically inspired by classicism, Orientalism, and Art Nouveau. His styles were said to be comfortable freeing women from the constriction of corsets and relied on draping to create the feminine effect.

He specifically showed Orientalism in his designs through turbans and and jeweled slippers, providing a more “exotic” dress for Edwardian women. The war however quickly ended this fashion period due to lack of resources and money.

Gowns inspired by the orient complete with oriental parasol and coolie lampshade inspired hat.” source: https://fashion-era.com/orientalism_in_dress.htm
Fur was another example of Orientalism and appeared on outerwear such as the coats in the images paired with long columnar dresses.

Orientalism in the Orient

Although Lunana takes place in the “Orient” the ideas of orientalism can still be seen throughout the movie. The idea of orientalism is the western lens on the Middle/far east and the way that the people live and think. Long story short it is racism towards people of the orient meant to fit a western perspective. Prime western examples of orientalism are movies like Aladdin, where the “bad guys” are portrayed as large dark men with big noses and mean faces. While this isn’t as extreme in Lunana we can see the main character, a boy obsessed with his phone and modern music move to a little town with no internet and little electricity. He is originally unhappy and wishes to leave, not wanting to teach and seeming at a loss without his technology. As he lives in Lunana he becomes “Enlightened” by the wise secluded mountain people and is educated by those who live with less. While it is hard to truly argue that Lunana is a truly Orientalist movie as it was created in the “Orient” it seems to have been influenced by many stories that stem from an orientalist perspective and come from the Western World.

The Effects of Ignorance

According to Edward Said’s Orientalism theory, western culture promotes a mindset where aspects of Middle Eastern cultures are perceived as strange or inhumane. Specifically Europeans and Americans contribute to this trend, as they are largely disconnected from Asian and Middle Eastern cultures. Ironically, these are the areas of the word where knowledge and awareness of surroundings are said to be highest. Proper information about these cultures is scarce in America and Europe, which pushes the foreign culture even further away, contribution to Orientalist mindsets.

The consequences of such a mindset are clearly represented in daily events. The ignorance toward other cultures has disadvantages that negatively effect relations between countries. In situations of foreign affairs, militaries act in response to the unknown, to protect their country. Ignorance is the primary reason for a majority of negative relations between countries. America’s portrayal of Middle eastern countries in the media after the events of 9/11 are an example of this. For some, the sight of anyone representing similar Middle Eastern cultures triggers a sense of threat. This fear is reflected in the political debates regarding immigration laws over recent years in America. Ignorance of the culture causes some Americans to generalize everyone of those cultures, and exclude them from their definition of an ‘American’. This is just one of the many issues that can and do arise from Orientalist mindsets in modern day.

To move beyond this burden, it will be most beneficial to incorporate knowledge of foreign cultures into daily activities in America and Europe. As it is, there is little representation of these cultures in positions of power, which makes it difficult to spread information about it. If people and artifacts of Middle Eastern and Asian cultures are shown and represented as much as American and European national achievements in every day life and politics, the world will be a much more educated and peaceful place.

Orientalism in Disney

Disney has very little diversity when it comes to its movies and tv shows. On the rare occasion where Disney produces a film with Asian or Middle Eastern characters or themes, they manage to represent them in a way that is stereotypical and offensive. Some prime examples are Aladdin and Mulan.

The original story of Aladdin is from a collection of Middle Eastern folk tales called A Thousand and One Nights. The stories began in India then traveled all through Persia and Asia Minor then were finally were written in Cairo. This authentic folk tale turned into a mockery of people from the Middle East when it was turned into a cartoon film. The writers of the movie were white and the characters were voiced by white voice actors as well. They made several stereotypical tropes for the film that included the wealthy, incompetent sheikh (the Sultan); the dark-skinned, perverted villain (Jafar); barbaric commoners; and the hypersexualized and subordinated women of the East (Jasmine). These were all things written and produced by caucasian males which were then given to many other “Caucasians as an authentic” view of the Middle East. These messages are extremely destructive and harmful to promote to viewers who may not have any idea what people from those countries and cultures are like. There were many ways it could’ve been done better because there are ways to appreciate a culture that doesn’t end up appropriating in.

Orientalism in Disney’s Mulan

There are few greater example of the western world’s fascination with exoticizing and exploiting Asian cultures for entertainment than Disney movies. Most of these films are catered to children and meant to be a family fun experience but they perpetuate stereotypes and prejudices about Asian people while also pushing a unilateral and generalized identity.

While Mulan is set in China, the film meshes Japanese and Chinese culture together. In the opening sequences of the film, Mulan is depicted with white powdered makeup typical of a Japanese geisha and she is also wearing a Kimono, a style of clothing not typical in China but instead in Japan.

Despite the sacredness of ancestral rites, the movie uses the Fa family’s ancestors as an object of ridicule. We, the audience, are supposed to find them strange and humorous. Instead of respecting this cultural practice, the film openly mocks it in its portrayal.

In addition, a major theme of the movie is Mulan’s burden of bringing “honor” to her family. The word alone is mentioned 29 times in the movie. It’s the reason she visits the matchmaker in the first place and why her family attempts to force her into marriage. It’s also her motivation behind going to war and risking her life in place of her father. In doing so, the film suggests that sacrificing herself is the only way she can honor her family and make them proud. It suggests that she must do those things at all costs. Her success and good-standing in the movie is judged by her sidekick, Mushu who never fails to tell her which actions do or do not dishonor her family.

This is a common trope in western movies where filmmakers will present the idea that all Asian people live in pursuit of one thing: honor. But honor as an all encompassing value does not exist and it isn’t unique to just one culture. We all have a personal definition of honor we apply to our lives. And yet, when Belle in The Beauty and The Beast takes her father’s place as the Beast’s prisoner, we called it an act of love.

Not honor. And not 29 times.

Indiana Jones and the Orientalism in his movies

Orientalism is the concept of the western view of the eastern world. This is mainly seen with stereotypes about eastern nations and by describing those civilizations as far away and magical. In the film series, Indiana Jones, there is Orientalism seen in each one of the original three films (in the fourth there isn’t orientalism but there are still stereotypes about Latin American nation so I guess South-Americaism?). Right away in the first movie, this is seen. in the Ark of the Covenant, one of the first locations that Indian Jones goes to is the country of Egypt. Now, even though Egypt in the real world is a very prosperous nation with several large cities and its people have very wide and common access to several high end and modern technologies, Indiana Jones and the Ark of the Covenant still shows the country as being a place where everyone fights with swords and lives in dirty mud huts. In fact, t the beginning of the movie they call Egypt a land of magic and mystery and the perfect place where the Ark would be.

In the second movie, the stereotypes just got worse. The second movie, Temple of Doom, takes place in the country of India. This movie is filled to the brim with stereotypes. Right away we see that the first civilization they encounter is a village filled with sheepherders. These villagers all talk about how they have their children stolen and how there is a mysterious royal family that lives in a palace up on the mountain (they don’t even try to hide the mystical faraway land part). The directors then try to emphasize the separation of reality and further perpetuate stereotypes when some of the food that is served is monkey eye soup. The big wammy, however, is with the cult in the basement of the palace where the priest will rip out the hearts of his victims.

The real cherry on top with Orientalism is with the third movie, The Last Crusade (except not really). In this movie, we get to see how the writers of Indiana Jones portray other foreign countries (other foreign white countries) such as Italy and Germany before it goes back to the middle east with Jordan. If one was to compare the ways that the European countries were described compared to the middle eastern countries, one can clearly see that one is shown as more modern and more civilized while the other is seen as thrid world and more old fashioned. Case and point, in Germany, the characters get around in cars and motorcycles while in Jordan, they get around in camels.

Is It Orientalist?

Keeping in mind that “Lunana: A Yak in the Classroom” is a Bhutanese film, filmed with Bhutanese actors, by a Bhutanese director, it takes a different approach to search for orientalism in the plot. Unlike a very capitalist-driven society like we have in America, Bhutan is known for measuring its success not numerically, with products produced and sold, but in happiness. The film’s narrative seems very much to be based on this philosophy; forcing Ugyen to adapt and find his own happiness in Lunana. Because of this, it is hard to argue that the film is innately orientalist, at least more than anything else is in an unfortunately Eurocentric world.

For example, Ugyen dreams of being a famous musician in Australia and initially thinks that his transition to Lunana will jeopardize that opportunity. However, he soon realizes that music is valued in a similar, if not even deeper way in Lunana than in the more urban communities he is used to. Even using a critical eye, “Lunana: A Yak in the Classroom” seems to be a very pure and honest movie, looking to spread a holistic message about community and connection. In some ways Ugyen is a yak for Lunana, but Lunana is a yak for him, being a pivotal part of his life that he will never forget and that will have a larger impact on his future, as we end up seeing when he plays the Yak song in Australia.

Orientalism in Mulan

Everyone knows the critically acclaimed Disney film Mulan. It is highly applauded due to its female hero, which breaks the norm of a standard plot of a Disney film. Despite all of Mulan’s glory, it has tones of orientalism throughout the whole film. Mulan was created after a Chinese folk tale called Ballard of Mulan, however, its animation style seems to portray more Japanese styles than Chinese. For example, when Mulan is being prepared by the matchmaker part of her makeup routine is to cover her face with white powder, however, the white-powered face style comes from the style of Japanese geishas. Not only this, but Mulan is wearing an article of clothing that resembles a Japanese Kimono, despite the film being set during the Han Dynasty. The Han Dynasty had a traditional type of clothing for women to wear, which was not animated into Mulan. In Mulan there is a warming scene between Mulan and her father under a cherry blossom tree, however, it is commonly known that a cherry blossom tree is a traditional flower in Japan. The mix-ups between Japanese and Chinese cultures show that some westerns see the Asian cultures as one big cohesive one even though Asia is made up of 48 different countries.

Mulan misses the mark on representing the fashion and make-up styles, but it also mocks one of China’s most valued ideals. Mushu is supposed to be an ancestral spirit and he is loved amongst the audience for his comedic personality as he guides Mulan through her troubles. But, in Chinese culture, ancestral worship is a belief that is taken extremely seriously and is not to be mocked. Mulan doing this suggest that Westerns see China’s ancestral traditions as a joke or an idea that is ridiculous. One of the core beliefs of the tradition of ancestral connections stems from the idea of respecting your elders. However, Mushu, the ancestral spirit, is disrespected by Mulan and the cricket which undermines the whole idea of what an ancestral spirit is supposed to be or how it is supposed to be treated. This doesn’t just highlight the lack of knowledge but shows the little respect we have for the Chinese culture.

Disney wanted to include more races and ethnicities in the Disney franchise but its version of different races and cultures is skewed by the eurocentric view westerners have about the world around them.

Leave Your Job and Sing Songs From the Hilltop: Orientalism in “Lunana: a Yak in the Classroom”

Set in the south Asian nation of Bhutan, “Lunana: a Yak in the Classroom” tells the story of Ugyen, a teacher who aspires to move to Australia to fulfill his lifelong dream of becoming a singer. However, to align with his duties to the Bhutanese government, he must complete his fourth year of mandatory service teaching in Lunana, home to one of the world’s most remote schools.

Right away, I noticed the strong juxtaposition between a city kid like Ugyen and this remote town in the Orient. Ugyen spends essentially the entire journey complaining about its difficulty and pondering how, exactly, people survive in the middle of nowhere. He almost never takes out his headphones, completely disengaged with his natural surroundings and embraced in the material world.

But as he spends more time interacting with Lunana and its people, Ugyen starts to realize that they are not just a bunch of other-worldly “savages” — the people of Lunana value his presence and value teaching him the legends of their culture. For example, the yak is a motif that is a symbol of love and survival — they sing songs about it, they honor the dead with it, they start fires with its dung to cook food. The students of Lunana expose Ugyen to a different, engaging culture, and in return they value his own lessons through his teaching. This moment of realization in Ugyen’s first few days is the catalyst in his decision to stay in Lunana rather than panic and leave at first sight.

Ugyen still struggles to see Lunana outside of the other-worldly orientalist lens — he has nothing to teach the students with, no electricity, and albeit he is learning, there is still a disconnect between the modern world and the orient in several instances — his students do not know what a car is, and after he runs out of teaching supplies, he must have more sent from the nearest civilization. While learning the traditional songs of Lunana, he is told to “leave his job and sing songs from the hilltop.” While the citizens of Lunana imagined the “hilltop” as the physical hilltop that people sing songs from, one cannot help but imagine Australia — where Ugyen planned to go to become a singer before being sent off to Lunana; the place he thought success was the most possible.

When wintertime comes, Ugyen has the ability to fulfill his lifelong dream, but instead of the “it’ll just be a few months” attitude we saw at the beginning of the film, we see him having trouble leaving. In spite of the disconnect, Ugyen did everything he could for his students, and they let him know. The students embrace of Ugyen as their teacher helped him embrace the culture of Lunana, and even as he heads off for the “hilltop” of Australia, he sings the songs of Lunana.

And I know, in this final scene of the film, Ugyen felt he was doing good — the reasons the filmmakers showed the altitude of each place Ugyen visited (Lunana being the highest; Sydney, Australia the lowest) was to demonstrate that Australia isn’t a “hilltop” after all. As Ugyen got further away from civilization, the altitude literally and figuratively increased. “Lunana: a Yak in the Classroom” demonstrates orientalism’s affect on civilization, and how one can somehow become more enlightened by getting away from the modern world.

Orientalism In The Stranger

Orientalism; the idea that Middle Eastern or Asian cultures are stagnant, savage, and only used to show the progress of a Western culture or person, can be seen in many works of literature. Novels such as Exit West, and The God of Small Things fight this system by depicting Eastern cultures as complex and independent cultures. On the other hand, many famous works like The Stranger, fail to break free from this trope.

The main instance of Orientalism in The Stranger comes when the main character Meursault (a western man) kills an Arabian man for no particular reason. The way Camus writes this ordeal is where Orientalism can really be seen. Camus refers to this Arabian man simply as “The Arab”. He is not given a name, a backstory, or a reason why he is killed. He is widdled down to the most one-dimensional version that a human being can become. As a metaphor “The Arab” possibly represents more, but as a character however, his only purpose is to die. Between this killing and the way he “objectified”, the Arabian Man and Meursault are as far away from mutual recognition as possible. The man is not depicted as a full human being and in the novel, his life only exists to be taken.

This is different from typical orientalism where an entire culture or nation is simplified because it is just one man. However, “The Arab” is the only “Eastern” character in the entire novel which means that the idea of Orientalism can still be applied. Throughout the novel, the only “Eastern” character is never given a life of his own, never shown progressing and is never even given a name. His only purpose is to interact with the western character (Meursault). Since he only exists to develop other characters, is never given an identity of his own, and is never recognized as truly human, “The Arab’s” treatment in the stranger is one of the most clear and concise examples of Orientalism in the literature we have studied this year.

Orientalism in American Media

America as a nation tends to believe that we are the best and the heroes of the story. Can you remember the last time you watched a movie where it was a non-American person fighting an American villain? Because I can not. In American media such as movies and even history books the Americans are always depicted as the good guys, or that the world revolves around them. This concept is better known as Orientalism. Orientalism refers to how the West tends to depict Eastern civilizations as barbaric and primitive, and then the West as civilized and advanced.

Orientalism is very prevalent in American movies. The genre of old western movies is plagued by Orientalism especially. In these movies, white people are portrayed as the heroes, while the savage Native Americans terrorize them. In reality Native Americans are actually very civilized, friendly people with a lot of culture. What adds to the misrepresentation of the native Americans is that during this period of time the native Americans were actually very peaceful people, they simply were just trying to keep the land they had been living on for years upon years before the white people came.

Furthermore, Orientalism is very prevalent in history books. In my experience with history classes, world history is portrayed as revolving around America. The books we are taught completely ignore the history of nations outside of America. In reality America does not have a big place in world history, it is a nation that has only been around for a couple hundred years, while other nations have been around for thousands with a lot more history to them which is all pushed to the side for the sake of American history.

Orientalism and the MET Gala

In 2015, the annual MET Gala theme was China: Through the Looking Glass. In essence, the event was an exhibit of Asian inspired designs made by western designers. The MET released a description of the event, stating the purpose of the theme was “to propose a less politicized and more positivistic examination of Orientalism as a site of infinite and unbridled creativity.” The statement implies Orientalism is a conversation rather than a system used to oppress eastern cultures.

Orientalism at its core is “a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient.” The use of American designers at an American event which targets Asian culture is doing just that – dominating and defining the culture for the Western world. The suggestion that Orientalism is a site of “creativity” implies that the culture is something Americans can play and explore with rather than a region’s way of life.

We like to believe that racism and Orientalism are things of the past, but in reality they are so deeply embedded into our culture that they become trends for the Western world to capitalize off of. The MET Gala is just one example of Orientalism in America, but its certainly one of the most blunt. Hopefully, the MET will do a better job of picking appropriate themes in the years to come.

Orientalism in Lord of the Rings

The Lord of the Rings was my favorite book and movie series growing up. I argue that the series is better than Star Wars and The Godfather by a large margin. That being said, I think all lovers of the trilogy should consider an orientalist perspective when experiencing the power of the one ring.

While it may not have been intentional, J.R.R. Tolkien created a world called “Middle Earth” that resembled a Eurocentric mindset. In Middle Earth, the west part of the map is filled with innocent white people (hobbits, elves, men, dwarves). The most extreme example is the snow-white elves. Further East in the map is Mordor where Mount Doom lies along with thousands of disgusting, uncivilized orcs.

Again, Tolkien most likely did not mean to hide a hate for the East in his books. However, the blatant contrast between the white westerners and orc easterners reflects a regional bias that may be prevalent among Europeans. Subconsciously, westerners may differentiate themselves from other regions, such as the East, based on race.

In the two biggest battles of the Lord of the Rings, there is a theme of everyone coming together in Middle Earth to defeat the orcs. The first battle is Helms Deep, where the men of Rohan are surprised by hundred of elves willing to fight along side them. Even though the idea is that two very different groups come together, both groups are still 100% white. Anyone who is not western is left out of the “good” alliance.

Tolkien had a clear lack of people of color in his book, but there is still no way I will try to cancel Lord of the Rings. But through this orientalist lens, we can see how a Eurocentric viewpoint can influence one of the greatest pieces of media in the last century.

Orientalism in Pirates of the Caribbean

Pirates of the Caribbean, a well known franchise adored by a large audience, is a fun, thrilling tale of the adventures of Captain Jack Sparrow and his companions. I grew up watching the films as a child and immediately fell in love with the series as soon as jack stepped off his sinking ship onto the dock of Port Royal. The first film follows Captain Jack and Will Turner as they attempt to catch the infamous ship, The Black Pearl, captained by Jack’s mutinous first mate Barbossa. The second film, Dead Man’s Chest, picks up right where the first left off and the viewer can jump right back into the fun. Although an enjoyable movie as a whole, the Caribbean native people in the film are portrayed as beast like cannibals who, are meant to be viewed as merely animals.

When we arrive on the island we follow will turner as he is brought before Captain Jack, who the native people believe to be a god. Immediately, the orientalist tones of the film are clear. Within the first few minutes, the white “civilized” characters are placed on a pedestal above the native people who are portrayed as uncivilized and unintelligent. The film depicts them as static, undeveloped savages who are outsmarted by their white overlord. As the story progresses, the native people, who believe Jack to be a god, decide to eat him in order to “Do him the honor of releasing him from his fleshy prison” In the end, Jack and his crew manage to escape the island on The Black Pearl and continue on their journey.

The portrayal of the Caribbean native people in this film is highly problematic. To the western viewer, who may be being exposed to them for the first time through the film, will not see them as people, rather as animals who act off of their instincts and primitive beliefs. The viewers may then internalize the sense of superiority presented to them about themselves and their culture to those that they view as the other. This belief only works to increase the divide and misunderstanding of people who have different cultures than what is commonly known in the west, increasing the prejudice and hate that we commonly see today.